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2015年英语四级考试基础语法:倒装

  全部倒装和部分倒装: 如果谓语在主语前面, 就是倒装语序. 倒装语序又分为全部倒装和部分倒装. 在全部倒装的句子中, 整个谓语都放在主语的前面:
 
  Here are some registered letters for you.
  In came a man with a white beard。
 
  在部分倒装的句子中只是谓语中的一部分(如助动词,情态动词, 或系动词be等)放在主语前面, 其余部分仍在主语后面:
 
  Under no circumstances must a soldier leave his post。
  I couldn’t answer the question. Nor could anyone else in our class。
  Only in this way is it possible to accomplish the above-mentioned glorious task。
 
  以neither, nor, so等开始的句子:由so引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(肯定句), 由neither, nor引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(否定句), 助动词或be置于主语前。
 
  “We must start for the work-site now”. “ So must we。”
  I am quite willing to help and so are the others。
  He didn’t drop any hint. Nor (Neither) did his secretary。
  “I won’t do such a thing。” “Nor (Neither) will I。”
 
  如果一个句子只是重复前面一句话的意思, 尽管是用so开头,语序也不要颠倒。
 
  “It was cold yesterday。” “So it was。”
  “Tomorrow will be Monday。” “So it will。”
 
  当句首状语为 never, little, not only, not until, hardly, scarcely等否定词或有否定意义的词语时, 一般引起部分倒装。
 
  No longer are they staying with us。
  No sooner had he arrived there than he fell ill。
  Under no circumstances could I agree to such a principle。
 
  表示位置或方向的副词提前, 谓语动词为 go, come等表示位置转移的动作动词而主语又较长时, 通常用全部倒装:
 
  There was a sudden gust of wind and away went his hat。
  The door burst open and I rushed the crowd。
  There comes the bus!
  Now comes your turn。
 
  如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序:
 
  There comes your turn。
 
  有here引起, 谓语为be的句子, 也要倒装:
 
  Here is China’s largest tropical forest。
  Here are some picture-books。
 
  如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序:
 
  Here we are. This is the new railway station。
  “Give me some paper。” “Here you are。”
 
  表语和系动词提前:
 
  介词短语: On the other side was northern Xinjiang。
 
  Near the southern end of the village was a large pear orchard。
 
  形容词: Very important in the farmer’s life is the radio weather report。
 
  Worst of all were the humiliations he suffered。
 
  副词: Below is a restaurant。
 
  Southwest of the reservoir were 2,000 acres of sandy wasteland。
 
  分词: Housed in the Cultural Palace are a library, an auditorium and recreation rooms。
 
  Hidden underground is a wealth of gold, silver, copper, lead and zink。
  Lying on the floor was a boy aged about 17.
  Standing beside the table was an interpreter。
 
  6) 句首状语若由 only + 副词, only + 介词词组, only + 状语从句构成, 引起局部倒装:
 
  Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing。
  Only through sheer luck did he manage to get some tickets。
  Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end。
 
  有not only开头的句子或分句,往往引起局部倒装:
 
  Not only did he complain about the food, he also refused to pay for it。
  Not only did the garage overcharge me, but they hadn’t done a very good repair job either。

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