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英语培训之常用语法2

He must not eat meat any more.
  规则(5):在不定词“to”的后面,必须用原形动词
  英文中的动词,是会变化的,以have为例,第一人称和第三人就不同:
  I have a dog.
  He has a dog.
  如果是过去式,动词又要变化。have的过去式是had,不论第几人称,一概都要用had。
  几乎每一个英文动词的过去式都有变化,以下是几个例子:
  现在式 过去式
  go went
  come  came
  eat   ate
  play  played
  swim  swam
  不论那一个动词,都有一个原形动词,一切都是从这个原形动词变出来的,像go、drink、have、walk、love、like等等都是原形动词。
  如果我们有必要要用不定词to,就必须用原形动词,例如to go、to drink、to have,都是正确的,*to went;*to drank;*to loved等等都是错的。
  英文中有一个动词最为麻烦,那就是am、are、is、was、were等等,翻译成中文,这都是,而这些动词的来源都是be,所以我们说这些动词都是verb to be。
  以下的句子都用上了〝be〞
  I want to be a teacher.
  He wants to be a good father.
  They all love to be rich.
  No one likes to be poor.
  规则(6):英文中有所谓的助动词。必须注意
  英文中有很多动词都是助词动,在规则(4)中,我们说在绝大多数的否定语句中,必须用助动词do或did。Do是原形动词,did 和does都是do的变形。
  除了do是助动词以外,can、may、might、will、would、must也都是助动词。
  以上所提到的助动词,都有一个共同的特色,那就是这些助动词后的动词必须是原形动词,以下的句子都是正确的:
  He can swim.
  He does not swim.
  I do not speak English.
  You must walk to work every day.
  I did not work yesterday.
  You may leave now.
  I will go to Taipei tomorrow.
  以下的句子都是错的:
  * I did not went.
  * He does not goes to work.
  * You must walked to work.
  除了以上的助动词以外,还有一个非常特殊的助动词,那就是have,在这个助动词的后面,动词绝对不能用原形动词,以下是用这个助动词的例子:
  I have been to England.
  I have slept all day.
  I have studied English since I was a child.
  been、slept 和studied都是过去分词(past participle),以下的句子也都是现在完成式,我们后讨论完成式的时候,会将这些解释清楚的。
  规则(7):英文问句要有助动词
  我们先看看以下的英文句子,这些都是错的:
  * How many books you wrote?
  * How many sons you have?
  正确的句子是:
  Why do you drink so much water?
  How many books did you write?
  How many sons do you have?
  绝大多数的英文问句子是一定要有助动词,以下全是正确的英文问句,你可以看出每一句的助动词吗?
  Do you love me?
  Did you go to school yesterday?
  How many books do you have?
  How much money does he have?
  Why don’t you go back home?
  Do you like to swim?
  Can you play violin?
  Will you go home tomorrow?
  Would you give me a call?
  当然啦,一旦动词是verb to be,我们又不需要助动词了,以下都是正确的英文问句:
  Are you a teacher?
  Is he a student?
  Is Mr. Chang your father?
  Were your mother and father in England last year?
  规则(8):特殊动词随主词的变化
  英文中,有些动词因主词不同而改变,verb to be是其中之一,因此,我们必须记得以下的规则:
  第一人称  第二人称  第三人称
  现在式 单数  I am  You are   (He,She,It)is
  复数  We are You are   They are
  过去式 单数  I was  You were  (He,She,It)was
  复数  We were   You were  They were
  Verb to have也有类似的变化:
  第一人称  第二人称  第三人称
  现在式 单数  I have You have  (He,She,It)has
  复数  We have   You have  They have
  过去式 单数  I had  You had   (He,She,It)had
  复数  We had You had   They had
  【练习一】
  以下的句子都有错,请将正确的句子写出来:
  1.* I am like my parent.
  2.* He is loves his teacher.
  3.* He keeps swim every day.
  4.* He wants drink a glass of water.
  5.* He likes play violin.
  6.* Jack do not love mathematics.
  7.* Mary hate singing.
  8.* My mother cook very good food.
  9.* He want me to see him tomorrow.
  10.* He not knows my name.
  11.* I not like you.
  12.* He not like swimming.
  13.* You not went home.
  14.* I not like swimming.
  15.* I wanted to went to my mother’s home.
  16.* I do not like to swimming.
  17.* I did not ate dinner.
  18.* I will not went home.
  19.* He did not went home.
  20.* You may leaving now.
  21.* He can swimming.
  22.* He does not goes to work.

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